The Indian constitution is the most amended national constitution in the world. There are three types of amendments to the Constitution of India of which the second and third types of amendments are governed by Article 368. The first type of amendment includes that can be passed by a “simple majority” in each house of the Parliament of India. The second type of amendment includes those that can be affected by the parliament by a prescribed “special majority” in each house; and The third type of amendment includes those that require, in addition to such a “special majority” in each house of the parliament, ratification by at least one-half of the State Legislatures.
Also Read: Must Do List of Important Articles - CLICK HERE
1st Amendment(1951): Added Ninth Schedule. This amendment provided several new grounds for restrictions to the right to freedom of speech and expression and the right to practise any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the constitution.
|Download Nishant eAcademy App|
|Best Courses & Mock Tests at affordable prices|
|Join Our Telegram Channel for all Updates|
|More: Nishant eAcademy Website | Exam India Website|
7th Amendment Act (1956)
Re-organisation of States (14 States, 6 UTs).
9th Amendment Act (1961)
Gave effect to the transfer of certain territories to Pakistan in pursuance of the agreement between the Government of India and Pakistan.
31st Amendment Act (1973)
The total strength of Lok sabha was increased from 525 to 545 (on the basis of Census 1971)
38th Amendment Act (1975)
It sought to make a declaration of Emergency non-judiciable and placed beyond the jurisdiction of courts, the Ordinances and Proclamation of Emergency issued by the President and Governors.
39th Amendment Act (1975)
Placed beyond judicial scrutiny, the election of President, PM and Chairman to either House of Parliament.
42nd Amendment Act (1976)
The working of the Preamble was changed from “Sovereign Democratic Republic” to read as: Sovereign Socialist, Secular Democratic Republic” and changed the description “unity of the nation” to “unity and integrity of the nation”. It laid down 10 Fundamental Duties for all citizens.
GET IN TOUCH
Free Videos for all
44th Amendment Act (1978)
The restoration of life of Lok Sabha and State Assemblies to 5 years.
52nd Amendment Act (1985)
Added 10th Schedule which contains provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection.
61st Amendment Act (1989)
Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years.
73rd Amendment Act (1992)
Panchayati Raj Bill passed. Constitution of panchayats at village and other levels. Direct elections to all seats in Panchayats and reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and fixing of tenure of 5 years for Panchayats.
74th Amendment Act (1993)
Nagarpalika bill passed. A new Part IX-A relating to the Municipalities was incorporated in the Constitution of 3 types of Municipalities, i.e., Nagar panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to the urban area, Municipal Corporation for larger urban areas. Reservation of seats for SC, ST, and women.
85th Amendment Act (2001)
Amended Article 16(4A) to provide for consequential seniority in promotion by virtue of the rule of reservation for the government servants belonging to the SCs and STs.
86th Amendment Act (2002)
It provides for (i) insertion of a new article 21A that the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.
88th Amendment Act (2003)
It provides for the insertion of a new Article 268A which states that taxes on services shall be levied by the Government of India and such tax shall be collected and appropriated by the Govt. of India and the States in the manner provided in clause(2).
89th Amendment Act (2003)
It provides for the amendment of Article 338 and insertion of a new article 338A which provides that there shall be a National Commission for ST.
91st Amendment Act (2003)
It provides that the total number of ministers, including the PM, in the Council of Ministers shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Lok Sabha.
93rd Amendment Act (2005)
In this Amendment, a provision has been inserted that the State (i.e., parliament or other legislatures) can make laws for the advancement of the SC, ST or the OBCs of citizens in matters of admission to educational institutions, including private unaided institutions.
95th Amendment Act (2010)
Extended the reservation of SC and ST seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies from 60 to 70 years.
99th Amendment Act (2015)
It provides for formation of a National Judicial Appointment Commission.
100th Amendment Act (2015)
It provides for amending First Schedule, that deals with acquisition of certain territories of Bangladesh following agreement between India and Bangladesh.
101st Amendment Act (2017)
The Constitutional 101st Amendment Act, 2016, contains the provisions necessary for the implementation of GST Regime. The amendment Act contains 20 amendments. The important changes made in constitution (new articles / amended articles) via this law are Article 246 (A), Article 269A, and Article 279-A. Changes in the 7th Schedule are in the Union List and State List.
102nd Amendment Act (2018)
It gives constitutional status to National Commission for Backward Classes addition of Articles 338B, 342A, and a Clause 26C. It removed Article 340 and modified Article 338 and 366.
103rd Amendment Act (2019)
The Reservation Act provides for a maximum of 10% reservation for economically weaker sections of citizens of classes other the classes mentioned in Clauses 4 & 5 of Article 15 (other than socially and educationally backward SCS and STS) and in amendment added Clause 6 under Article 15 and Clause 6 under Article 16.
104th Amendment Act (2020)
To extend the reservation of seats for SCS and STS in Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (State Assemblies) from 70 years to 80 years. It removed the reserved seat for the Anglo-Indian community in the LS and State Assemblies. The amendment of Article 334 was passed on 25th January.
105th Amendment Act (2021)
It restores the power of State Governments to identify and specify Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBCs). It received the assent of the President of India. The Constitution (1 27th amendment) Bill 2021 was passed by the Parliament on 11th August, 2021.